维基新闻:合理使用

维基新闻,自由的新闻源
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翻译的方针
本页记载的是翻译的方针
它是其他语言版本维基新闻中的正式方针,並非中文維基新聞中的正式方针,內容僅供參考。它是否适用中文维基新聞,請參照其他語言的维基新聞相應頁面或本頁面的討論頁內容進一步完善本頁,请在茶馆相关讨论或本頁面的討論頁中发表意见
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方针与指引

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回退不過三原則
引用来源
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删除方针
版权信息
图像使用守则
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封禁方针

礼仪

合理使用」(Fair use),又称为「公平使用」,是美国境内应对侵犯版权指控的抗辩理由,它本身并非辩方的权利。相近的概念有「公平交易」(Fair dealing),在大多数英联邦国家的法律系统中均可找到。

中文维基新闻现在不容许上传任何有版权的合理使用图像。当您在其他语言的维基新闻上传合理使用图像时,您必须为图像加入适当的版权标志,否则一经发现会被即时删除

維基新聞上的合理使用[编辑]

維基新聞在圖像的合理使用方面,比維基百科更加嚴厲,尤以用於特定類型的描述是絕對不允許的,但在某些特定的情況(需要有相關列表)下是可以的,像是陳述事實的照片,如果在維基新聞上有利用價值,那也有可能會被其他新聞機構所利用,像是前述種類的插圖與照片是絕對不能使用的。特別是在維基新聞允許相關內容被用與商業用途時,在競爭激烈的環境下,很多網路的圖片是很難被合理使用的。在未經其他新聞業者允許的情況下,此類圖片是可以被「快速刪除」的

不管合理使用與否,在未標明或錯放圖像版權下,都是可以被快速刪除的,圖像的描述必須包含檔案網址來源、敘述,上傳的圖像如有不完整的資訊,都有可能被刪除。

上傳位置的差異(維基新聞vs維基共享資源)[编辑]

由于中文维基新闻只接受自由资讯,因此您应将这些图片上载至維基共享資源,它是提供所有维基媒体辖下计画的共用媒体库,当某语言的维基新闻需使用另一语言的图片时,只需加入图像名称即可使用,免却另作上载的麻烦,同时也可在维基百科及维基教科书等其他项目中使用。而内部上载功能仅供其他语言的维基新闻用作上载合理使用图像。

自由图像包括属于公有领域范围的、使用GNU FDL创作共用(「非商业性」或「禁止改作」除外)及其他自由授权图像。请参阅維基共享資源准许使用的授权标签清单共享資源的自由图像源清单

優先使用規定[编辑]

當二幅圖像同樣描述於同一篇項目,而其中一幅是自由版權,另一幅並不是,應使用自由版權的圖像,包括該自由版權的圖像質量較差。在任何情況下,維基新聞都應該使用自由版權來源的作品。使用合理使用的圖像會阻礙維基新聞推廣自由版權的目標。

英文版的合理使用范围[编辑]

在英文维基新闻中,如果有关图片并不属於以下任何类别,将会被管理人员删除。

商標、宣傳資料和螢幕擷圖[编辑]

這些物品性質中,商標、宣傳資料用於識別人、組織、地點。螢幕擷圖的圖像資訊應該包括版權資料。這些螢幕擷圖,用於說明軟件或是互聯網並在私人電腦製作,都是包括在合理使用範圍內。

Publicity photos[编辑]

Publicity photos must be tagged with the {{publicity}} template.

Public figures, places, and more may have photos made available for use by the media. These images are usually copyrighted and are released specifically to present the figure, location, or corporation in a positive light. They should be viewed critically for this form of bias.

Example of appropriate use: Original graphic of Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin from the Canadian Government in an article about his visit to the United States.

Publicity images from the Canadian Government are copyright and licensed for restricted use, which makes them non-free. An original unaltered image in an article about the figure is appropriate.

Example of inappropriate use: The same image, with the logo of the Liberal Party of Canada added to the graphic. Or the image used in an article about politicians in which Paul Martin is not specifically named.

Copyrighted images may not be altered or defaced. Images used must be specifically relevant to the story they illustrate.

Trademarks and logos[编辑]

Logos and trademarks must be tagged with the {{logo}} template.

Corporate logos exist to make instant recognition of a company and its products or public image, usually with an intent to be a message, and this form of communication may be POV. Trademark law is somewhat unique, in that use of a trademark is a reasonable substitution for the corporation's name; but they may not be altered or defaced in any way.

Example of appropriate use: To illustrate an article about the joint General Motors and Toyota fuel cell project, both original trademarked logos are displayed separately.

Separate original logos used to illustrate an article about the two corporations.

Example of inappropriate use: A collage of over-lapping oil company logos to illustrate an article about a U.S. Senate debate over drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

Altered (put together into a collage) logos of corporations which are not the focus of the article; the U.S. Senate is the focus.

截图[编辑]

Screen shots must be tagged with the {{screen shot}} template.

Screen shots are images created on a user's computer from what is visible on the computer screen. The software or information visible in the screen shot may still be copyrighted, so these images are often not free. A limited number of images (for example, not every page of a website or every screen of a computer program) may fall under the Fair Use description if they are used to illustrate a newsworthy story.

Example of appropriate use: A capture of a program's splash screen or a shot highlighting a specific news worthy item in an article about the program or news item.

An image specific for the article, and not attempting to cover every element of the program, website, or other data.

Example of inappropriate use: Screen captures showing important elements of how a software works or substantial elements of a copyrighted material, like how to solve a game or much of a website.

Too much, or too general, and not being used to illustrate the article but rather to convey much of the copyrighted information through the graphics.

突发新闻[编辑]

Breaking news images must be tagged with the {{breaking news}} template.

On rare occasions, when a news story is breaking and a questionably-free image is available, at least temporarily, it might be uploaded temporarily until either its license is clarified (and the image is then moved to Commons) or a better image is found.

An example of this is Nuclear waste leaks at Sellafield facility on Cumbrian coast, England, which was a breaking lead article story. Its primary images were drawn from the Visit Cumbria website, which has a return-notify policy if any images are used from the site. Because the licensure was not clearly free, the images could be uploaded temporarily until they were clarified as free, or until replacement images were found.

In no case may images uploaded under this breaking news exception remain on Wikinews. They must be cleared and moved to commons, or they must be replaced with a freely-licensed image.

IRIN照片[编辑]

IRIN photographs must be tagged with the {{irin}} template.

Photographs from the IRIN photo gallery, as well as all IRIN material distributed on the IRIN web site and e-mail services, are owned by the Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), a project of the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA).

IRIN materials (articles, photographs, radio broadcasts and films) may be reposted on a web site or reprinted in media services and humanitarian reports free-of-charge. The reprinting/re-posting of IRIN materials by commercial and non-commercial media services in print or on the web and their reproduction for TV or radio broadcasts is also permitted free-of-charge.

英国政府版权[编辑]

Photographs or images that are Crown Copyright must be tagged with the {{crown copyright}} template.

Crown copyright protected material (other than the Royal Arms and departmental or agency logos) may be reproduced free of charge in any format or medium - provided it is reproduced accurately and not in a misleading context. Where the material is being published or issued to others, the sources and copyright status should be acknowledged. Where any of the Crown copyright items on this site are being republished or copied to others, the source of the material must be identified and the copyright status acknowledged.

请参阅[编辑]